CategoriesProgramming

Cloudbuild with Android – Using Encrypted Environment Variables

Hi there! At my current work, we had a problem with our CI/CD, and we started to look for alternatives. We checked out various platforms like CircleCI, Bitrise, and others. Still, the process to ask the upper-level management to add this as providers was a bit slow and tedious so, since we already had GCP as a provider, we decided to try GCP Cloudbuild.

Cloudbuild is an infrastructure that allows you to run builds for your projects. The price was reasonable, so we decided to start investing time on it to move our Android CI/CD all to cloudbuild.

As first we started looking for some previous experience on the internet and found two excellent articles about it, those articles will be linked below. Nevertheless, those articles required a certain knowledge of Docker, CloudBuild, and other technologies that I didn’t have.

So I started learning about it to understand these articles better. What I wanted to achieve first was to read an encrypted environment variable. With this goal in mind, I started my quest.

Note: Articles in which this post is based.

https://ryanharter.com/blog/cloud-build/

https://medium.com/dailymotion/run-your-android-ci-in-google-cloud-build-2487c8b70ccf

First, let’s enable GCP KMS

What we need to do first is go to the GCP console, create our new project, and enable the KMS. You must go to Security → Cryptographic Keys.

Note: KMS stands for Key Management Service.

Sidebar menu which shows the cloud build KMS

Creating a Keyring and a Criptokey

A Keyring can hold various CryptoKeys. To create a Keyring, you need to use the following command:

“yourkeyringname” is the name of your Keyring, and you should replace it for your what suits best for you, and the flag –location=global means that this Keyring is available in all regions of your project.

Now that we already created a Keyring, let’s create our new CryptoKey, for that we’re going to use the next command.

“KEYNAME” is the name of the key you want to create, and the–keyring flag is to indicate to which Keyring it’s going to belong since we’re using as an example “yourkeyringname” it will belong to it.

Encrypting the variable

To encrypt our variable, we must store it in a plain text file and then create a ciphertext file from that one. For that, we’re going to use the next command.

What this does for you is to encrypt your my_variable.txt file and convert it to my_variable_encrypted.txt using your Keyring and your cryptokey. After that, you need to create a base64 from your encrypted variable, and that can be achieved using the next command:

If you’re using macOS you can use:

In Linux, the command is:

The result of this process is going to be something like this:

Note: This is an example. Your base64 is not going to be the same.

Now let’s store this base64 until we finish the next step.

Creating our AndroidBuilder

In this step, we’re going to create our new Docker Image and pass to it our secret as a Build Argument. If you never created a Dockerfile before, probably you want to learn about it before continuing with this topic.

What we do in this Dockerfile is:

  • Obtain the javac builder from GCR (Google Container Registry).
  • Update the system.
  • Download the dependencies.
  • Set our “build arg” with the name SECRET.
  • Set the ANDROID_HOME as an environment variable.
  • Copy our gradle-build script(This is a little script that helps us to store the gradle cache so the subsequent builds can be faster).
  • Download the android sdk tools, set our tools as an environment variable, and finally install the Android SDK.

This is the gradle-build script that is mentioned in the Dockerfile.

Note: This Dockerfile and gradle-build script are based on this article that helped me a lot. I only added a few instructions, the latest android platform, build-tools, platform-tools, and the ARG SECRET line.

If you’re a more advanced user of Docker and GCP, you can use the community cloud builder, which can be found here. I wanted a simpler proof of concept, so the previous one was the one that fit best for me.

As the last part of this step, we’re going to create a cloudbuild.yaml, which is going to build our container and upload it to the Google Container Registry. In this cloudbuild.yaml file, we’re going to execute a command which builds the container. There is where we’re going to run our Android project. In this cloudbuild.yaml, we pass our secret and use the base64 that we generated before, here’s how it’s going to look.

In this file, we’re building a Docker container and passing our secret as build arg. You can see that we’re using a double dollar sign to escape the cloudbuild substitutions, which are, for example, the $PROJECT_ID, then we’re declaring that we’re going to use the secret at the end of our cloudbuild.yaml. Remember to replace “yourprojectname,” “yourkeyring,” “yourcryptokey” and your base64 in the previous file.

Finally, we use the following command to build it and send it to the Container Registry.

Important: If you’re getting an error because the Container Registry doesn’t have permission to decrypt you must go to your GCP console, Select Cloudbuild, go to configuration and copy your service account email, go to Security → Cryptographic keys → Select your key → Click the add member button in the right panel, add it as a member and select the role of decrypt cryptographic keys.

The cloudbuild file in our android project

Now that we created our container to run our Android project, what we’re going to do is to create the cloudbuild file of our Android Project.

First, we’re going to create a couple of GCP Storage Bucket, and the Storage Buckets are object storages provided by the Google Cloud Platform. In other words, it helps us to store things. In our case, it will be helpful for our Gradle cache and apks.

To create it, we’re going to open up the terminal and type the next command.

In our cloudbuild.yaml we’re going to describe the following steps:

  • Copy our cache into our GCP Storage Bucket using the gsutil image from Google Container Registry. The GCP provides this image, so we don’t have to build our own.
  • Run a KtLintCheck task on our previously created AndroidBuilder.
  • Run a detekt task in our AndroidBuilder.
  • Run our unit test always on our AndroidBuilder.
  • Assemble our Apk.
  • Store the cache.
  • Store our apks in a storage bucket.
  • Finally, we set the timeout for the build to 1200 seconds.

Note: Ktlint is a linting tool for Kotlin, and you can read more about it in this awesome article by Nate Ebel. On the other hand, detekt is a static code analysis tool for Kotlin, and you can read more about it here.

Set up the triggers.

Now we want to set-up the build triggers, so each time we push a branch, we can run our build to verify that everything is fine. To do this, we need to go to console.google.com, select our project, go to the navigation menu, select cloud build, triggers, connect our repository if you haven’t already, and then click the create trigger option. It looks like this.

Create Trigger in GCP form

This is a trigger that we want to run when a new feature branch is pushed to the repo. To test it, you need to push a new branch to the repo and check the GCP console history. If everything went well, you’re going to see something like this.

Successfully worked trigger

You can also try your builds locally using cloud-build-local.

Test your build locally

Pushing to GitHub to trigger the build can be annoying and a slow process. If you want to test your build, you can test it in your computer using cloudbuild local and running the following command:

Note: You need to install first cloud-build-local with the following commands.

You can read more about it here.

Where do we go from here

This was a proof of concept that I used to learn new things and to propose it to the DevOps team, in my job, I wanted to help them to help our Android team as I mentioned before this can be hugely improved so feel free to improve it or to use the community cloudbuilder if that fits your needs.

Ryan Harter has a series in which he talks about how to increment the build numbers and how to store the build cache. If you want to go even further, play around with the community builders.

What you can take away from this

If you’re looking for an alternative to circleCI, bitrise, or others, and you’re not afraid of a terminal and learning new things (Assuming you’re like me and didn’t know anything about cloudbuild) cloudbuild is cool. Surely it doesn’t have the beautiful UI/UX of one Continuous Integration provider. But it does very well the job. So it depends on your needs.

That’s it

If you have any questions, suggestions, or improvements, please leave a comment 😄. You can also reach me via Twitter @gvetri18.

CategoriesProgramming

What is a unit test

You probably seen in those job offers, “Experience with Tests and TDD.” But if you’re like me you probably have no idea about tests, you heard about them, and you know that the good developers are using it. But, what are they? how they work?

🤔 Let’s start with the test

When a QA comes to me and asks me if I’m confident about what my code is supposed to do, I always answer no, and that’s because I know I could mess it up. It’s not because I don’t trust my coding skills. It’s because I’m human, and we made mistakes. That’s why I started learning about testing because an excellent test suite can help you to catch the bugs that you’re going to introduce.

A test determines something; in our case, we want that our code goes as we planned. In my vague words, a test is a code that you write to verify that the “production” code you wrote is doing what is supposed to do.

👩‍💼👨‍💼The unit

An individual thing or person regarded as single and complete but which can also form an individual component of a larger or more complex whole.

Taken from lexico.

In our case, a unit can be a class or a function which can group to create an App. We can test our units to be sure that each unit does what it’s supposed to do, and if we do that, we’re doing unit testing.

👩‍💼👨‍💼 Testing the unit

Let’s say we are building a shiny, never made before, unique app called calculator. In this app, we have a function called sum(), which realizes an addition of two numbers. In Kotlin, it will be.

fun sum(int a,int b) : Int {
    return a+a;
}

Then we jump into making our UI because the UI is fantastic, and I love to make the UI, and when we run the app and start testing it, we are surprised because the sum isn’t working. Why isn’t this working? The parameters are a and b. Trust me, this thing happens.

There’s a problem if your build times take some time. You probably know that a full compilation time can break your productivity flow. I hope you’re not like me who get distracted easily and forget what I was doing. Unit testing can help us to solve these two problems because the tests verify that the code is doing what it’s supposed to do. Unit tests run faster than compiling the app and manually testing it, so let’s create our first test.

Almost every language has its unit testing frameworks. You can check your language unit testing framework here. In this case, I’m using Kotlin, so we’re going to use JUnit.

A unit test looks like this and, by default, lives in your test folder.

    @Test
    fun calculator_sum_shouldReturnTheSumBetweenTwoParameters() {
        //Given
        val calculator = Calculator()
        //When
        val result = calculator.sum(2, 1)
        //Then
        assertEquals(3,result)
    }

Analyzing the anatomy of these tests, we can observe the next things:

  • The @Test annotation which indicates that is a Test.
  • The name of the function which indicates [Unit_WhatWeAreTesting_ExpectedBehavior].
  • The body of the test.

The test should follow the Arrange-Act-Assert or the Given-When-Then Pattern. I like the given, when, then pattern because it reminds me of the user stories. And when you can get easily distracted it helps you well! Let’s talk about that pattern!

  • Given: In this section, the objects which we’re going to need are created.
  • When: Here, we call the method to test.
  • Then: Finally, in the last section, we do the assertions.

Alt Text

I’m using Intellij Idea, so there’s a play button close to that test, we click on it, and there’s a message indicating that the test failed.

Alt Text

Our test failed because our function is returning the sum between our first parameter 🤦‍♂. Now we can change our function to the following and it will pass!

fun sum(int a,int b) : Int {
    return a+b;
}

Alt Text

Amazing. I must admit now the green has become one of my favorite colors since it’s the color that the tests show when it passes!

Kotlin Note: In Kotlin, we can use backticks to wrap the name of the test so it can be more readable!

@Test
    fun `calculator sum should Return The Sum Between Two Parameters`() {
        //Given
        val calculator = Calculator()
        //When
        val result = calculator.sum(2, 1)
        //Then
        assertEquals(3,result)
    }

🔺 The pyramid of testing

We already saw what a unit test is, but there are more types:

  • Unit Test, as we mentioned before this test only the subject.
  • Integration Test verifies that two or more units are working together as they should.
  • End to End Test verifies that all the units are working together as they should. The end to end test in the case of Android includes UI testing.

Since we have three types of testing, we need to split them reasonably. All can’t be End to End Test of Integration Tests. And fortunately, there’s an image which explains very well how we should distribute our testing, and it’s called the pyramid of testing.

Alt Text

The pyramid of testing was created by Mike Cohn in his book, Succeeding with Agile. He states that the unit tests should be the base, then the Integration Tests, and finally the End to End Tests.

🤓 More benefits of testing

When you have a test suite, it works like a fallback network that can help you to avoid introducing new bugs when you are creating a new feature or refactoring the code. Also, your tests can help future developers who came after you to understand more what a feature is doing because the test is the best documentation.

That’s all for now! I hope you enjoyed this post. If you like it, don’t forget to share it with your friends and coworkers so they can know more about testing.

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